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See list of 10 genera in this family

Reference: Gillett (1963).

  • 1a. Leaves of the stem reduced to scales 0.5–4.5 mm long; flowers 2.5–4 (–7) mm long; lobes of the corolla imbricate in bud
  • 1b. Leaves of the stem foliaceous [Fig. 669], (5–) 10–150 mm long; flowers 5–55 mm long; lobes of the corolla convolute in bud
    • 2a. Corolla rotate, with lobes much longer than the basal, connate portion [Figs. 668,669]
    • 2b. Corolla tubular, funnelform, campanulate, or salverform, with lobes shorter than the basal, connate portion
      • 5a. Style evident, slender; corolla salverform, red-purple to pink to nearly white; anthers becoming spirally coiled
        • 6a. Inflorescence a panicle-like or corymb-like cyme; style slightly bifid, divided for a short distance below the stigma lobes; stigma lobes semicircular to bluntly triangular from side view, fleshy; capsules narrow-cylindrical
        • 6b. Inflorescence a spike-like cyme; style not divided beneath the stigma lobes; stigma lobes flabellate from side view, only slightly fleshy; capsules ellipsoid
      • 5b. Style absent, inconspicuous, or short and stout; corolla cylindric, funnelform, or campanulate, blue to white or green to purple-green; anthers not spirally coiled
        • 7a. Lobes of the corolla with conspicuous, basal spurs in the larger flowers; corolla green to purple-green
        • 7b. Lobes of the corolla lacking spurs; corolla blue to white
          • 8a. Sinuses of the corolla folded or plaited, often of a color or texture different from those of the corolla lobes; plants perennial; calyx with a continuous membrane or rim on the inside at the summit; nectary glands located at base of ovary
          • 8b. Sinuses of the corolla neither folded nor plaited, of a color and texture similar to those of the lobes; plants annual or biennial; calyx without a membrane or 
with a membrane confined to the base of each sinus; nectary glands located at base of corolla
            • 9a. Margins of the corolla lobes conspicuously fringed in the apical portion [Fig. 667]; corolla 35–55 mm long, usually 4-merous; ovules covering much of the inner surface of the ovary; calyx with a membrane on the inside at the base of each sinus; seeds papillose
            • 9b. Margins of the corolla lobes not fringed; corolla 10–23 mm long, commonly 5-merous; ovules confined to bands along each of the 2 sutures of the ovary; calyx without an internal membrane; seeds smooth

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one genus in this family.