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See list of 8 species in this genus

Reference: Wilken et al. (1993).

  • 1a. Lobes of the corolla fimbriately fringed on the margin [Fig. 501]; upper stem leaves conspicuously clasping the stem
  • 1b. Lobes of the corolla not fringed; upper stem leaves not clasping the stem
    • 2a. Principal leaf blades linear to narrow-lanceolate, entire or with 1 or 2 pairs of linear lobes near the base; capsules 5–8 mm tall with 6–15 seeds
    • 2b. Principal leaf blades lanceolate or oblanceote to ovate or orbicular, toothed to bipinnately lobed (the stem leaves usually entire in P. egena); capsules 2–5 mm tall with 1–25 seeds or 7–13 mm tall with 30–80 seeds
      • 3a. Plants perennial; stems pubescent with eglandular hairs only; principal stem leaf blades 10–25 cm long, usually entire; capsule with 1 or 2 seeds
      • 3b. Plants annual; stems pubescent with both glandular and eglandular hairs; principal stem leaf blades 1–10 (–15) cm long (or to 20 cm in P. tanacetifolia), usually toothed to lobed; capsule with 1–80 seeds
        • 4a. Pedicels 2–15 (–20) mm long; corolla 8–40 mm long; capsules 7–13 mm tall with 30–80 seeds; leaf blades ovate to orbicular, simple with coarse and/or irregular teeth
          • 5a. Corolla purple, with pairs of scale-like appendages near the base that alternate with and are adnate to the filaments; pedicels 10–15 (–20) mm long; stamens 15–35 mm long; leaf blade usually shorter than to ± equaling the length of the petiole
          • 5b. Corolla with a white or purple basal connate portion and a blue limb, lacking scale-like appendages near the base; pedicels 2–10 mm long; stamens 8–16 mm long; leaf blade usually longer than the petiole
        • 4b. Pedicels up to 4 mm long; corolla 6–10 mm long; capsules 2–5 mm tall with 2–25 seeds; leaf blades elliptic to oblanceolate, lobed or compound
          • 6a. Calyx lobes 4–6 mm long in flower, 6–8 mm long in fruit; style 11–15 mm long; capsules with 1 or 2 seeds
          • 6b. Calyx lobes 3–4 mm long in flower, 4–5 mm long in fruit; style 3–12 mm long; capsules with 2–25 seeds
            • 7a. Corolla white to blue, with a pair of ovate appendages near the base between the filaments; styles 7–12 mm long, glabrous capsule 2–3 mm tall 
with 2–4 seeds 2–3 mm long
            • 7b. Corolla with a yellow basal, connate portion and a white to pink limb, without a pair of appendages between the filaments; style 3–4 mm long, pubescent; capsule 4–5 mm tall with 10–25 seeds ca. 0.5 mm long

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one species in this genus.