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See list of 4 genera in this family
  • 1a. Floating leaf blades without a sinus [Fig. 53]; perianth composed of 3 sepals and 3 petals; carpels 4–8, not embedded in the receptacle
    • 2a. Leaves strongly dimorphic—submersed, opposite, highly dissected ones and floating, alternate, simple ones 0.6–3 cm long; flowers with 3–6 stamens; underwater parts of plant barely coated with mucilage
    • 2b. Leaves monomorphic, all alternate, floating, simple [Fig. 53], 3.5–13.5 cm long; flowers with 18–36 (–51) stamens; underwater parts of plant heavily coated with mucilage [Fig. 53]
  • 1b. Floating leaf blades (or emergent in Nuphar advena) with a prominent, basal sinus 
 [Figs. 54,55]; perianth composed of numerous tepals that become progressively petaloid 
in centripetal fashion; carpels numerous, sunken into a large, spongy receptacle
    • 3a. Leaves with angular basal lobes; petioles with 4 large air cavities; flowers white (pink); sepals sepaloid; outer petals petaloid, gradually grading into the stamens toward the center of the flower
    • 3b. Leaves with rounded basal lobes [Figs. 54,55]; petioles with many small air cavities; flowers yellow; sepals petaloid; petals all stamen-like

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one genus in this family.