- Group 1Lycophytes, Monilophytes
- Group 2Gymnosperms
- Group 3Monocots
- Group 4Woody angiosperms with opposite or whorled leaves
- Group 5Woody angiosperms with alternate leaves
- Group 6Herbaceous angiosperms with inferior ovaries
- Group 7Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries and zygomorphic flowers
- Group 8Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, and 2 or more distinct carpels
- Group 9Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, connate petals, and a solitary carpel or 2 or more connate carpels
- Group 10Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, distinct petals or the petals lacking, and 2 or more connate carpels
Valerianella have unusual, asymmetrical fruits due to the development of only one locule (of three) of the fruit. Many taxa have been named based solely on differences in fruit morphology. However, Ware (1983) determined that many of these sometimes striking fruit differences are the result of a single gene (i.e., a single species may produce 2 or 3 types of fruits within a given population, each type of fruit specific to a given plant). Therefore, the number of species recognized here is fewer than some previous treatments. Reference: Dyal (1938).
1b. Fertile locule of fruit lacking a corky mass on the abaxial surface [Fig. 554]; cymules with lanceolate or oblanceolate outer bractlets and usually eciliate inner bractlets (these sometimes with cilia near apex or rarely ciliate throughout)
Show photos of: Each photo represents one species in this genus.