Your help is appreciated. We depend on donations to help keep this site free and up to date for you. Can you please help us?


Native Plant Trust: Go Botany Discover thousands of New England plants

Section Vulpinae

See list of 4 species in this section

Reference: Standley (2002).

  • 1a. Perigynia rounded and inconspicuously spongy-thickened at the base, adaxially without veins; sheaths red- or brown-dotted near the margins; achenes circular in outline
  • 1b. Perigynia truncate and conspicuously spongy-thickened at the base, with usually 7 veins adaxially; sheaths not dotted; achenes ovate
    • 2a. Leaf sheaths smooth, not corrugated, the summits firm, thickened, yellow, and truncate; leaf blades minutely papillose on the adaxial surface, epistomic; inflorescence 3–6 cm long
    • 2b. Leaf sheaths usually corrugated on surface opposite leaf blade (smooth in 
 C. oklahomensis), the summits thin, fragile, colorless, and convex; leaf blades smooth 
on adaxial surface, not epistomic; inflorescence 5–15 cm long
      • 3a. Lowermost 2 or 3 leaves with highly reduced blades; leaf sheaths smooth, prolonged above the junction of the blade and forming a tube that surrounds the stem; stems firm; ligules obtuse, up to 4 mm long
      • 3b. Lowermost leaves usually with ± well-developed blades; leaf sheaths corrugated, not prolonged above junction of blade; stems weak, easily compressed; ligules acute, up to 10 mm long

Show All Couplets

 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one species in this section.