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Section Phacocystis

See list of 14 species in this section

Carex ×‌limula T. Fries was reported from ME by Campbell et al. (1995). The specimens that supposedly vouchered this occurrence were all C. bigelowii (all at MAINE!). References: Haines (2000b), Standley et al. (2002).

  • 1a. At least the lower carpellate scales with the apex prolonged into a conspicuous, usually scabrous, awn [Figs. 99,100]
    • 2a. Lowest carpellate spike usually drooping on a peduncle (5–) 14–68 mm long; carpellate scales including awns (2.9–) 3.1–20 mm long, pale brown to copper-brown
    • 2b. Lowest carpellate spike ascending to arching on a peduncle 6–20 mm long; carpellate scales including awns 2.5–9 mm long, brown to red-brown or purple-brown
      • 6a. Perigynia long-papillose, with 2–5 veins on each face; carpellate scales dark brown to purple-brown, with a paler central band 10–33% as wide as the entire scale; achenes dull, with or without folds or constrictions; perigynium beak sometimes with scabrules about the orifice
      • 6b. Perigynia short-papillose, veinless or obscurely veined; carpellate scales bronze to brown, with a central pale band 33–50% as wide as the entire scale; achenes lustrous, with a fold across one face; perigynium beak without scabrules
  • 1b. Carpellate scales unawned at the apex, at most with a minute, smooth cusp
    • 7a. Lowermost spike arching to drooping; perigynium smooth, with a triangular, flat, often twisted, apex
    • 7b. Lowermost spike erect to ascending; perigynium minutely papillose, with a rounded to acute, only somewhat flattened, plane apex
      • 8a. Lowest bract of inflorescence exceeding the total height of the inflorescence (often conspicuously so) [Fig. 101]; leaf blades amphistomic
        • 9a. Leaves 1.5–3.5 mm wide; perigynia with (3–) 5–7 veins on each surface; achenes dull; plants cespitose from short rhizomes; lateral spike entirely carpellate
        • 9b. Leaves 2.5–8 mm wide; perigynia without veins or with 1–4 obscure (rarely distinct) veins on one surface [Fig. 98]; achenes glossy; plants colonial from elongate rhizomes; usually at least some of the lateral spikes androgynous
      • 8b. Lowest bract of inflorescence shorter than or equaling the total height of the inflorescence; leaf blades hypostomic (except C. nigra, which has stomates on the adaxial surface)
        • 10a. Carpellate scales purple-brown to black; stems arising from the center of the previous year’s leaf tufts, surrounded by senescing leaves
          • 11a. Perigynia with 3–9 veins on each surface, the beak with scabrules about the orifice [Fig. 102]; leaf blades with stomates on the adaxial surface
          • 11b. Perigynia without veins or with 1–4 obscure (rarely distinct) veins on 
one surface, the beak lacking scabrules; leaf blades lacking stomates on the adaxial surface
        • 10b. Carpellate scales pale brown to red-brown; stems arising laterally, not surrounded by the previous year’s leaves
          • 12a. Lower sheaths not fibrillose; sheaths of stems leaves convex and prolonged at summit; perigynia not spotted with red, with 3–5 veins on each surface
          • 12b. Lower sheaths splitting into an inconspicuous to prominent ladder-network of fibers [Fig. 103]; sheaths of stem leaves concave at summit; perigynia sometimes red-spotted in apical portion, with 0–5 veins on each face
            • 13a. Carpellate scales shorter than the perigynia (varying to as long as), acute at the apex; perigynia ovoid, acute to obtuse at the apex, with 0–5 veins on each surface, ascending; stems commonly ± equal in height to the leaves; lower leaf sheaths scabrous
            • 13b. Carpellate scales longer than the perigynia, acute to acuminate at the apex; perigynia obovoid, rounded at apex, without veins, divergent; stems commonly surpassing the leaves in height; lower leaf sheaths glabrous

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one species in this section.