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- Group 1Lycophytes, Monilophytes
- Group 2Gymnosperms
- Group 3Monocots
- Group 4Woody angiosperms with opposite or whorled leaves
- Group 5Woody angiosperms with alternate leaves
- Group 6Herbaceous angiosperms with inferior ovaries
- Group 7Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries and zygomorphic flowers
- Group 8Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, and 2 or more distinct carpels
- Group 9Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, connate petals, and a solitary carpel or 2 or more connate carpels
- Group 10Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, distinct petals or the petals lacking, and 2 or more connate carpels
Section LupulinaeSee list of 4 species in this section
Reference: Reznicek (2002a).
1a. Carpellate spikes spherical to short-ovoid, 1–4.2 cm long; lowermost bract of inflorescence usually sheathless or with a sheath shorter than 3 mm; achenes ellipsoid to obovoid; beak of perigynium 1.5–4.2 mm long
1b. Carpellate spikes ovoid to cylindric, 1.5–8 cm long; lowermost bract of inflorescence with a closed sheath 5–150 mm long; achenes rhomboid; beak of perigynium 6–10 mm long
Show photos of: Each photo represents one species in this section.