- Group 1Lycophytes, Monilophytes
- Group 2Gymnosperms
- Group 3Monocots
- Group 4Woody angiosperms with opposite or whorled leaves
- Group 5Woody angiosperms with alternate leaves
- Group 6Herbaceous angiosperms with inferior ovaries
- Group 7Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries and zygomorphic flowers
- Group 8Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, and 2 or more distinct carpels
- Group 9Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, connate petals, and a solitary carpel or 2 or more connate carpels
- Group 10Herbaceous angiosperms with superior ovaries, actinomorphic flowers, distinct petals or the petals lacking, and 2 or more connate carpels
Plants of Sanicula bear two types of flowers—those that are bisexual (i.e., have stamens and carpels) with hooked bristles over the outer surface of the ovary and those that are unisexual and staminate. The distribution of these types of flowers is important. All species in New England have umbellets with both types of flowers, but some species also have umbellets with only staminate flowers. Reference: Pryer and Phillippe (1989).
1a. Styles much exceeding the bristles of the fruit [Fig. 356], usually more than twice as long as the calyx; umbellets dimorphic—some with staminate and bisexual flowers intermixed and some with only staminate flowers, those with both types of flowers bearing 12–25 (–117) staminate flowers per umbellet; plants perennial
1b. Styles exceeded by the bristles of the fruit [Fig. 355], usually not exceeding the length of the calyx (as long as 1.5 times the calyx length in S. canadensis var. grandis); umbellets usually monomorphic, all bearing bisexual and staminate flowers, the staminate flowers numbering 1–8 (–15) per umbellet ( S. canadensis var. grandis sometimes with umbellets containing only staminate flowers); plants biennial
Show photos of: Each photo represents one species in this genus.