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See list of 5 genera in this family

References: Mitchell (1988), Wunderlin (1997).

  • 1a. Plants herbaceous, annual; proximal portion of first pair of primary lateral veins at the 
very margin of the leaf blade (i.e., the basiscopic side of the vein exposed for a short distance) [Fig. 726]
  • 1b. Plants woody, perennial; first pair of primary lateral veins not at the margin of the leaf blade (i.e., both the basiscopic and acroscopic sides bordered by green leaf tissue)
    • 2a. Leaf blades entire and unlobed, pinnately veined; branches often with axillary spines; fruit yellow-green, spherical, 6–12 cm wide
    • 2b. Leaf blades toothed, usually at least some on the plant lobed, either with obvious palmate venation or with 3 main veins from the base of the blade; branches without axillary spines; fruit short-cylindric, spherical, or pyriform in outline, 1–8 cm wide
      • 3a. Flowers enclosed in a fleshy receptacle and accessible only by a small apical opening; terminal winter bud surrounded by a pair of stipules
      • 3b. Flowers not enclosed in the receptacle, visible without dissection [Fig. 727]; terminal winter bud not concealed by stipules
        • 4a. Style bifid [Fig. 727]; carpellate aments and fruits short-cylindric; petioles 2–5 cm long; branchlets glabrous or pubescent, but the hairs not long and spreading
        • 4b. Style undivided; carpellate aments and fruits spherical; petioles 5–10 cm long; branchlets densely hirsute

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one genus in this family.