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See list of 3 genera in this family
  • 1a. Nuts triangular in cross-section; pith terete or obscurely angled in cross-section; winter buds slender-fusiform, 8–19 mm long; bark smooth and light gray, even in age (unless roughened by cankers from disease); staminate flowers in dense, spherical clusters
  • 1b. Nuts terete or compressed; pith with 5 prominent points; winter buds ovoid to globose, up to 10 mm long; bark gray to brown, furrowed in age; staminate flowers in slender aments
    • 2a. Carpellate flowers numbering 2–4 per involucre; involucre covered with spine-like bracts [Fig. 658], enclosing 1–3 nuts at maturity; winter buds not clustered toward distal end of twig
    • 2b. Carpellate flowers 1 per involucre; involucre not appearing spiny, enclosing 1 nut at maturity; winter buds clustered toward distal end of twig [Fig. 663]

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 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one genus in this family.