Your help is appreciated. We depend on donations to help keep this site free and up to date for you. Can you please help us?


Native Plant Trust: Go Botany Discover thousands of New England plants


See list of 6 species in this genus

Reference: Ball and Wujek (2002).

  • 1a. Spikelets solitary, erect, with 10–15 sterile scales in the basal portion, not subtended by foliaceous involucral bracts [Fig. 120]; plants cespitose
  • 1b. Spikelets 2–many, spreading or drooping on peduncles; scales all fertile; foliaceous involucral bracts present; stems produced singly or a few together from a rhizome
    • 2a. Involucral bract 1 per inflorescence (sometimes with another very reduced, scale-like bract), erect; leaf blades 1–2 (–3) mm wide, channeled
      • 3a. Uppermost leaf blade 3–25 cm long, as long or longer than its sheath; stems scabrous near the top; peduncles scabrous; involucral bract (8–) 15–60 mm long, green to red-brown at the base; floral scales colored or at least tinged with red-brown
      • 3b. Uppermost leaf blade 1–4 cm long, shorter than its sheath; stems smooth; peduncles pubescent but not scabrous; involucral bract 6–20 mm long, gray to black at the base; floral scales black or dark gray
    • 2b. Involucral bracts (1–) 2–5 per inflorescence, somewhat spreading; leaves 
(1.5–) 2–6 (–8) mm wide, flat, at least in the basal half
      • 4a. Scales with 3–7 veins, red-brown near the margin; flowers with 1 stamen; perianth bristles at least tinged with red-brown (rarely entirely white)
      • 4b. Scales with 1 central vein (i.e., the midrib; occasionally with inconspicuous, short lateral veins in E. viridicarinatum), green or gray to black near the margin; flowers with 
3 stamens; perianth bristles white

Show All Couplets

 Show photos of:   Each photo represents one species in this genus.